WORKING WITH THE TEXT
Answer the following questions.
1. Do you think the Indian princes were short-sighted in their approach to the events of 1757?
ANSWER: Yes, the Indian princes were short-sighted in their response to the events of 1757 because they failed to see and comprehend the British rulers’ ill intentions. The British gradually became virtual rulers, attempting to conquer the entire country by gaining princes’ trust and assisting them in little skirmishes against other provincial princes.
2. How did the East India Company subdue the Indian princes?
ANSWER: The East India Company expanded its company by importing and selling machine-manufactured things from England. The Indian princes were continually at odds with one another and warring. As a result, they enlisted the aid of English merchants to battle their adversaries. Because of the continual confrontations, the regular people have lost their calm. Indirectly, these disputes aided the East India Company in subduing the Indian kings one by one and gradually gaining complete authority over the populace.
3. Quote the words used by Ram Mohan Roy to say that every religion teaches the same principles.
ANSWER: Ram Mohan Roy quoted to his wife Uma that “Cows are of different colours, but the colour of their milk is the same. Different teachers have different opinions but the essence of every religion is the same.”
4. In what ways did the British officers exploit Indians?
ANSWER: The British took advantage of Indians in a variety of ways. They placed hefty taxes on peasants, lowered import duties on products made in England and brought them to India, and severed the thumbs of competent craftspeople, destroying their businesses.
5. Name these people.
(i) The ruler who fought pitched battles against the British and died fighting.
(ii) The person who wanted to reform the society.
(iii) The person who recommended the introduction of English education in India.
(iv) Two popular leaders who led the revolt (Choices may vary.)
1.Tipu Sultan of Mysore fought and died in pitched wars against the British.
2.Raja Ram Mohan Roy, a knowledgeable Bengali man, was one of those who sought to improve society.
3.Macaulay, an Englishman, was the one who suggested that English education be introduced in India.
4.Maulvi Ahmedulla of Faizabad and Peshwa Nana Saheb were two popular leaders who led the insurrection.
6. Mention the following.
(i) Two examples of social practices prevailing then.
(ii) Two oppressive policies of the British.
(iii) Two ways in which common people suffered.
(iv) Four reasons for the discontent that led to the 1857 War of Independence.
(i) Untouchability and child marriage
(ii) The British cut the import duty on manufactured goods from the United Kingdom, which had a significant impact on Indian industry.
In 1818, they also passed Regulation III, which allowed an Indian to be mailed without a court hearing.
(iii) The common people’s employment and lands were gone. They were being converted by the British.
(iv) There are four causes of dissatisfaction:
a. In their own nation, Indians became slaves.
b. The East India Company decimated Indian industries.
c. The Indians were not treated with the same respect as the British.
d. The lubricant used on the bullet was made of cow and pig fats, which ruined Indian customs.
WORKING WITH LANGUAGE
In comics what the characters speak is put in bubbles. This is direct narration. When we report what the characters speak, we use the method of indirect narration.
Study these examples.
First farmer: Why are your men taking away the entire crop?
Second farmer: Your men have taken away everything.
Officer: You are still in arrears. If you don’t pay tax next week, I’ll send you to jail.
• The first farmer asked the officer why his men were taking away the entire crop.
• The second farmer said that their men had taken away everything.
• The officer replied that they were still in arrears and warned them that if they did not pay tax the following week, he (the officer) would send them (the farmers) to jail.
1. Change the following sentences into indirect speech.
(i) First man: We must educate our brothers.
Second man: And try to improve their material conditions.
Third man: For that we must convey our grievances to the British Parliament.
The first man said that ______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________
The second man added that _______________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________
The third man suggested that ________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________
a) The first man said that they must educate their brothers.
(b) The second man added that they must try to improve their material conditions.
(c) The third man suggested that they must convey their grievances to the British Parliament.
(ii) First soldier: The white soldier gets huge pay, mansions and servants.
Second soldier: We get a pittance and slow promotions.
Third soldier: Who are the British to abolish our customs?
The first soldier said that ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________
The second soldier remarked that __________________________________ __________________________________________________________________
The third soldier asked __________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________
(a) The first soldier said that the white soldier got huge pay, mansions and servants.
(b) The second soldier remarked that they got a pittance and slow promotions.
(c) The third soldier asked who the British were to abolish their customs.
SPEAKING AND WRITING
1. Playact the role of farmers who have grievances against the policies of the government. Rewrite their ‘speech bubbles’ in dialogue form first.
2. Look at the pictures.
Fox accidentally falls into a well
“How do I get out of here?”
“Hello! Is this water sweet?”
“Too sweet! I’ve had so much, I might faint.”
“Let me taste it.”
“Thanks for the help. Come out when you can.”
“My mother used to say: Be careful how you take the advice of people you don’t know.”
(i) Ask one another questions about the pictures.
• Where is the fox?
• How did it happen?
• What is the fox thinking?
• Who is the visitor?
• What does she want to know?
• What is the fox’s reply?
• What happens next?
• Where is the goat?
• Where is the fox now?
• What is the goat thinking?
The fox is in the well.
She fell into the well by accident.
The fox is thinking about the ways to get out of the well.
The visitor is a goat.
She wants to know whether the water is sweet.
The fox replies that the water is very sweet and she had a lot of it.
The goat wanted to taste the water.
The goat is dragged into the water by the fox.
The fox comes out of the well.
The goat is thinking of her mother’s advice not to trust any stranger.
(ii) Write the story in your own words. Give it a title. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
A fox once fell into a well by accident. She pondered how to get out of the pit. By happenstance, a goat ended up there. She peered down into the abyss. She inquired of the fox about the sweetness of the water. The crafty fox pulled a fast one on us. She uttered a lie about how lovely the water was and how she’d had enough of it. The silly goat was equally curious about the water. She was invited into the well by the fox. The goat arrived quickly. The fox climbed out of the well by riding on the goat’s back. She then expressed gratitude to the goat for his assistance. The goat was reminded of her mother’s warnings that she should never follow strangers’ counsel.
Title- The clever Fox.
3. Read the following news item.
History becomes fun at this school
Mumbai: Students in the sixth grade of a certain school in Navi Mumbai love their history lessons thanks to a novel teaching aid. It is not surprising given the fact that their study material includes comic books and they use their textbooks for reference to put things into perspective. Besides, students are encouraged to tap other sources of information as well. During history classes, students pore over comic strips of historical periods, enact characters of emperors and tyrants, and have animated discussions on the subject. History has become fun.
In the class students are asked to read the comic strip aloud, after which they break up into groups of four, discuss what they have heard and write a summary. Each group leader reads his group’s summary aloud and the whole class jumps into discussion and debate, adding points, disagreeing and qualifying points of view. A sixth grade student says, “It’s a lot of fun because everyone gets a chance to express themselves and the summary takes everyone’s ideas into account.”
According to the school principal the comic strip format and visuals appeal to students. A historian feels that using comics in schools is a great idea. Comics and acting help students understand what characters in the story are actually thinking.
(adapted from The Times of India, New Delhi, October 2007)
Based on this news item, write a paragraph on what you think about this new method of teaching history.
This new method of teaching history is undoubtedly unique and interesting. Moreover, images stay longer in the mind than words. As a result, studying history through comic strips will be highly beneficial. However, there is one hitch. Currently, the syllabus is so large that this may not be practical. However, many students may spend a significant amount of time looking at the photographs. They will have preconceptions about a historical figure. The images may offer them ideas that aren’t entirely accurate.
4. Find the chapters in your history book that correspond to the episodes and events described in this comic. Note how the information contained in a few chapters of history has been condensed to a few pages with the help of pictures and ‘speech bubbles’.
ANSWER: It is an activity.
5. Create a comic of your own using this story.
Once the Sun and the Wind began to quarrel, each one saying that he was stronger than the other. At last they decided to test each other’s strength. A man with a cloak around his shoulders was passing by. The Wind boasted, “Using my strength I can make that man take off the cloak.” The Sun agreed. The Wind blew hard. The man felt so cold that he clasped his cloak round his body as tightly as possible.
Now it was the turn of the Sun which shone very hot indeed. The man felt so hot that he at once removed the cloak from his body. Seeing the man taking off the cloak, the Wind conceded defeat.
ANSWER: It is an activity.