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# Geography (The Earth Our Habitat) -Class 6 – Chapter 4 – Maps- Notes

Introduction

π A map is a representation or a drawing of the earthβs surface or a part of it drawn on a flat surface according to a scale.

π When many maps are put together we get an Atlas.

π Atlases are of various sizes, measurements drawn on different scales.

π Maps are of different types. Some of them are-

PHYSICAL MAPS:

π Maps showing natural features of the earth such as mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc. are called physical or relief maps.

POLITICAL MAPS:

π Maps showing cities, towns, villages, different countries, and states of the world with their boundaries are called political maps.

THEMATIC MAPS:

πSome maps focus on specific information, such as road maps, rainfall maps, maps showing the distribution of forests, industries, etc. are known as thematic maps.

There are three Components of Maps- distance, direction, and symbol.

DISTANCE:

Maps are drawings, which reduce the entire world or a part of it to fit on a sheet of paper. But this reduction is done very carefully so that the distance between the places is real.

Scale is the ratio between the actual distance on the ground and the distance shown on the map.

Scale is very important in any map. If you know the scale, you will be able to calculate the distance between any two places on a map.

When large areas like continents or countries are to be shown on paper, then we use a small scale.

When a small area like your village or town is to be shown on paper, then we use large scale.

DIRECTION:

πThere are four major directions, North, South, East and West. They are called cardinal points.

π Compass is an instrument used to find out main directions. Its magnetic needle always points towards north-south direction.

SYMBOL:

πIt is not possible to draw on a map the actual shape and size of different features such as buildings, roads, bridges, trees, railway lines or well, so symbols are used for them. These symbols are of universal significance.

π Various colors are used for the symbol. For example, blue is used for showing water bodies, brown for mountains, yellow for the plateau, and green is used for plains.

π There is an international agreement regarding the use of these symbols. These are called conventional symbols.

SKETCH:

πA Sketch is a drawing mainly based on memory and spot observation and not to scale.

π A rough drawing is drawn without scale, is called a sketch map.

PLAN:

πA plan is a drawing of a small area on large scale.

π A large-scale map gives you a lot of information.

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