1. Answer the following questions briefly.
(a) What are the major landforms?
Answer– The major landforms are: mountains, plateaus, and plains.
(b) What is the difference between a mountain and a plateau?
Answer– A mountain is any natural elevation of the earth’s surface. The mountains may have a small summit and a broad base. It is considerably higher than the surrounding area. Whereas A plateau is an elevated flat land. It is a flat-topped table land standing above the surrounding area. A plateau may have one or more sides with steep slopes.
(c) What are the different types of mountains?
Answer– There are three different types of mountains:
Fold mountains- Fold mountains are formed as a result of the compression of tectonic plates, which leads to the formation of large fold like structures on the earth’s crust.
Block mountains- Block Mountains are created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically.
Volcanic mountains- Volcanic mountains are formed due to volcanic activity.
(d) How are mountains useful to man?
Answer– Mountains are very useful. The mountains are a storehouse of water. Many rivers have their source in the glaciers in the mountains. The river valleys and terraces are ideal for the cultivation of crops. Mountains have a rich variety of flora and fauna. The forests provide fuel, fodder, shelter, and other products like gum, raisins, etc. Mountains provide an idyllic site for tourists. Several sports like paragliding, hang gliding, river rafting and skiing are popular in the mountains.
(e) How are plains formed?
Answer– Plains are formed by rivers and their tributaries. The rivers flow down the slopes of mountains and erode them. They carry forward the eroded material. Then they deposit their load consisting of stones, sand and silt along with their courses and in their valleys. It is from these deposits that plains are formed.
(f) Why are the river plains thickly populated?
Answer– Plains are the most useful areas for human habitation. There is a great concentration of people as more flat land is available for building houses, construction of transport network is easy. Because of fertile soils, the land is highly productive for cultivation. That’s why plains are very thickly-populated regions of the world.
(g) Why are mountains thinly populated?
Answer– Because of the harsh climate, less people live in the mountain areas. Also, the slopes are steep, less land is available for farming.