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Geography (The Earth Our Habitat) -Class 6 – Chapter 6 – Major Landforms of the Earth- Notes


πŸ‘‰ The surface of the earth is not the same everywhere. It has an infinite variety of landforms. Some parts of the lithosphere may be rugged and some flat. The main landforms are; mountains, plateau and plains.

πŸ‘‰ These landforms are a result of two processes;
-Internal process
-External process

πŸ‘‰ Internal Process

The internal process leads to the upliftment and sinking of the earth’s surface at several places.

πŸ‘‰ External Process

The external process is the continuous wearing down and rebuilding of the earth’s surface.


πŸ‘‰ The wearing away of the earth’s surface is called erosion.

It is carried out by various agents; like wind and water.


πŸ‘‰ The surface of the earth is rebuilt by the process of Deposition.

πŸ‘‰Ice, Water, and Wind are the main agents of deposition.


πŸ‘‰A mountain is any natural elevation of the earth’s surface.

πŸ‘‰ The mountains may have a small summit and a broad base.

πŸ‘‰ It is considerably higher than the surrounding area.

πŸ‘‰ As you go higher, the climate becomes colder. That’s why very high mountains are covered with snow.

πŸ‘‰ Permanently frozen rivers of ice are called glaciers.

Mountain Range:

πŸ‘‰When Mountains are arranged in a line, it is called a mountain range.

πŸ‘‰Many mountain systems consist of a series of parallel ranges extending over hundreds of kilometers.

πŸ‘‰The Himalayas, the Alps, and the Andes are mountain ranges of Asia, Europe, and South America, respectively.

Types of Mountains:

πŸ‘‰There are three types of mountains; Fold mountains, Block mountains, and Volcanic mountains.

Fold Mountains:

πŸ‘‰Fold mountains are formed as a result of the compression of tectonic plates, which leads to the formation of large fold-like structures on the earth’s crust.

πŸ‘‰ The Himalayan Mountains and the Alps are young fold mountains.

πŸ‘‰ The Aravali range in India, the Appalachians in North America, and the Ural mountains in Russia are very old fold mountains.

Block Mountains:

πŸ‘‰Block Mountains are created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically.

πŸ‘‰ The uplifted blocks are termed as horsts and the lowered blocks are called graben.

πŸ‘‰ The Rhine valley and the Vosges mountain in Europe are examples of such mountain systems.

Volcanic Mountains:

πŸ‘‰Volcanic mountains are formed due to volcanic activity.

πŸ‘‰ Mt.Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mt.Fujiyama in Japan are examples of such mountains.

Importance of Mountains:

πŸ‘‰The mountains are a storehouse of water. Many rivers have their source in the glaciers in the mountains.

πŸ‘‰ Water from the mountains is used for irrigation and the generation of hydroelectricity.

πŸ‘‰ The river valleys and terraces are ideal for the cultivation of crops.

πŸ‘‰ Mountains have a rich variety of flora and fauna.

πŸ‘‰ Mountains provide an idyllic site for tourists.

πŸ‘‰ Mountains provide many forests produce; Like fuel, fodder, shelter, gum, raisins, honey, etc.


πŸ‘‰A plateau is an elevated flat land. It is a flat-topped table land standing above the surrounding area.

πŸ‘‰ A plateau may have one or more sides with steep slopes.

πŸ‘‰ The height of the plateau often varies from a few hundred meters to several thousand meters.

πŸ‘‰ It can be young or old.

πŸ‘‰ The Deccan plateau in India is one of the oldest plateaus.

πŸ‘‰The Tibet plateau is the highest plateau in the world with a height of 4,000 to 6,000 meters above the mean sea level.

Importance of Plateaus:

πŸ‘‰Plateaus are very useful because they are rich in mineral deposits.

πŸ‘‰African plateau is famous for gold and diamond mining.

πŸ‘‰In India, huge reserves of iron, coal, and manganese are found in the Chhotanagpur plateau.

πŸ‘‰ In the plateau areas, there may be several waterfalls as the river falls from a great height.

πŸ‘‰ In India, the Hundru falls in the Chhotanagpur plateau on the river Subarnarekha and the Jog fall in Karnataka are examples of such waterfalls.

πŸ‘‰ The lava plateaus are rich in black soil that is fertile and good for cultivation.

πŸ‘‰ Many plateaus have scenic spots and are of great attraction to tourists.


πŸ‘‰ Plains are the most useful areas for human habitation.

πŸ‘‰ Plains are very fertile and thus the land is agriculturally very productive.

πŸ‘‰ Most of the people settle in the plain regions as flat land is available for transport, and for the building of houses, buildings, railways, etc.

Landforms And the People:

πŸ‘‰ Humans have been living on different kinds of landforms in different ways. Life is difficult in mountainous areas.

πŸ‘‰ Plains provide much better conditions. It is easy to grow crops, build a house or a road in a plain than a mountain.

πŸ‘‰ Natural calamities such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, storms, and floods cause widespread destruction. Huge loss of life and property takes place. By creating awareness about such incidences we may lower the risks.

πŸ‘‰ Quite often we use the land in a wasteful manner, for example constructing houses on fertile land. Similarly, we throw garbage on land or in water making them dirty. We should avoid using such important gifts of nature carelessly. The available land is not only for our use. It is our duty to leave the earth a better place for future generations as well.


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