Geography (The Earth Our Habitat) – Class 6 – Chapter 8 – India: Climate; Vegetation and Wildlife – Notes

Weather

 πŸ‘‰ Weather is about day to day changes in the atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature, rainfall and sunshine etc.

Seasons in india

πŸ‘‰ There are four major seasons in india-

πŸ‘‰ Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to February

πŸ‘‰ Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May

πŸ‘‰ Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy) June to September

 πŸ‘‰ Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October and November

COLD WEATHER SEASON OR WINTER

πŸ‘‰ During the winter season, the sun rays do not fall directly in the region. As a result the temperatures are quite low in northern India.

HOT WEATHER SEASON OR SUMMER

πŸ‘‰ In the hot weather season sun rays more or less directly fall in this region. Temperature becomes very high. Hot and dry winds called loo, blow during the day.

SOUTH WEST MONSOON SEASON OR RAINY SEASON

πŸ‘‰ This season is marked by the onset and advance of monsoon. The winds blow from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal towards the land. They carry moisture with them. When these winds strike the mountain barriers, rainfall occurs.

SEASON OF RETREATING MONSOONS OR AUTUMN

πŸ‘‰ During this season, the winds move back from the mainland to the Bay of Bengal. That’s why it is called the season of the retreating monsoon.

Climate

πŸ‘‰ The climate is about the average weather condition, which has been measured over many years.

πŸ‘‰ The climate of India has broadly been described as a Monsoon type.

πŸ‘‰ The climate of a place is affected by its location, altitude, distance from the sea, and relief.

πŸ‘‰ Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the world’s highest rainfall.

NATURAL VEGETATION

πŸ‘‰ The grasses, shrubs and trees, which grow on their own without interference or help from human beings are called natural vegetation.

πŸ‘‰ Natural vegetation is dependent on different climatic conditions, among which the amount of rainfall is very important.

πŸ‘‰ Due to varied climatic conditions, India has a wide range of natural vegetation.

πŸ‘‰ The different types of vegetation found in india are:

   (1) Tropical rain forests or evergreen forests

   (2) Tropical deciduous forests

   (3) Thorny bushes

   (4) Mountain vegetation   

(5) Mangrove forests

WHY ARE FORESTS NECESSARY?

πŸ‘‰ Forests are very useful and perform various functions like release oxygen for us to breathe and absorb carbon dioxide.

πŸ‘‰ The roots of the plants bind the soil which prevents soil erosion.

πŸ‘‰ Forests provide us with timber for furniture, fuelwood, fodder, medicinal plants and herbs, lac, honey, gum, etc.

πŸ‘‰ Forests are the natural habitat of wildlife.

πŸ‘‰ Natural vegetation has been destroyed to a large extent because of the reckless cutting of trees.

WILD LIFE

πŸ‘‰ Forests are home to a variety of wildlife. There are thousands of species of animals and a large variety of reptiles,    amphibians, mammals, birds, insects and worms which dwell in the forest.

πŸ‘‰ The tiger is our national animal.

πŸ‘‰ Gir forest in Gujarat is the home of Asiatic lions.

πŸ‘‰ Elephants and one-horned rhinoceroses roam in the forests of Assam.

πŸ‘‰ Camels and wild asses are found in the Great Indian desert and the Rann of Kuchchh respectively.

πŸ‘‰ Wild goats, snow leopards, bears, etc. are found in the Himalayan region.

πŸ‘‰ India is equally rich in bird life.

πŸ‘‰ The peacock is our national bird.

πŸ‘‰ Other common birds are parrots, pigeons, mynah, geese, bulbul and ducks.

 πŸ‘‰ There are several bird sanctuaries which have been created to give birds their natural habitat.

πŸ‘‰ There are several hundreds of species of snakes found in India. Cobras and kraits are important among them.

πŸ‘‰ Due to cutting of forests and hunting, several species of wildlife of India are declining rapidly. Many species have    already become extinct.

πŸ‘‰ In order to protect them many national parks, sanctuaries and biosphere reserves have been set up.

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