Q2. Describe the different methods of asexual reproduction. Give examples.
Answer: Different methods of asexual reproduction:
(i) Vegetative propagation: It is the method of reproduction in higher plants. In this method, a portion of the plant detaches from the parent plant and develops into an independent plant. Eg. Sugar cane, banana, rose, etc.
(ii) Budding: In budding, reproduction takes place by the formation of small bud-like projection from the body. The nucleus of the parent body divides into two and one of the nuclei moves into the bud. When the bud mature, it detaches from the parent and can exist independently. Eg. Hydra and yeast.
(iii) Spore formation: During unfavourable climatic conditions such as scarcity of water, food, heat or dryness, the plants produce spores. The spore is a small single-celled reproductive body which is covered by a thick and hard protective coating. This protective helps to survive in an unfavourable condition. When the condition become favourable, the thick coating breaks open and spores germinate to produce a new plant. Eg. Bead mould, fungi etc.
(iv) Fragmentation: Fragmentation is the process where a mature organism breaks up into small pieces. Each of these pieces can lead an independent life like a new individual. Eg. Algae
(v) Binary fission: In this process, a mature cell gives rise to two or more daughter cells. During this process, the nucleus divides first followed by the division of cytoplasm. Eg. Amoeba, paramecium, etc.