Q5. Explain the factors responsible for the depletion of water table.
Answer: Factors responsible for the depletion of water table:
(i) Increasing population: As a result of the increasing population, more and more houses, shops, roads, offices, etc. are using water to fulfill their needs. This, in turn, increases the usage of water and more amount of wastewater is being produced.
(ii) Industrialization: Most of the stages of manufacturing processes in industries require water. As the number of industries increases, the water required by them also increases which contributes to the depletion of the water table.
(iii) Deforestation: Trees prevent soil erosion and also helps in replenish groundwater levels when it rains. Due to deforestation, the number of plants decreases. Hence, the water holding capacity of soil decreases, and thus the groundwater of that area is not recharged.
(iv) Agricultural activities: Water for agriculture is mainly obtained from rivers, canals, rainwater, groundwater, etc. Agriculture is impossible without water. Therefore, groundwater is the main source of water for agricultural activities, and this causes further depletion of the water table.
(v) Non-effective means of water conservation: A very little has been done to conserve freshwater sources. As we know, we use water mindlessly and exploit them because we think we have a lot of water. But it is wrong. We should conserve water because fresh drinking water is not unlimited. We must use them in a conservative way because it is precious.